Helminths are a common cause of deterioration in well-being, sleep disorders and digestive problems. Infection with parasites causes a variety of unrelated symptoms in a child’s or adult’s body, and to prevent this, you need to know how worms spread from person to person. Parasitic diseases caused by worms are usually combatable, but such treatment involves the use of toxic drugs, so it is better to avoid infecting larvae.
What are worms
There are many types of helminths that fall into two categories - nematodes (round) and flatworms. Worms are parasitic organisms that live in the body of an animal or person while affecting various organs and tissues, causing specific symptoms and general health problems. The size of the worms varies from a few millimeters to tens of meters. Helminth samples are infectious and their presence in the body is indicated by the same symptoms as other diseases (intestine, liver, pancreas, etc. ).
Where do the parasites come from? The occurrence of worms in the body is often associated with poor hand hygiene, but this is not the only way they are transmitted. Different types of parasites pass from one person to another in all sorts of ways. Pathologies caused by worms that spread among humans are called contact helminthiasis.
To date, dozens of pathogens of parasitic diseases are known, yet the process of infection is approximately the same. Eggs and larvae of parasites are exposed to food, water, sexual contact, etc. they can get into the body together. Another common way to infect is by swallowing mature individuals or parts of the worm's body. Once in the body, helminths develop and some of them multiply. Certain types of parasites remain in a larval state and are covered with a protective capsule.
Any type of helminthiasis is characterized by active progression, while the lack of appropriate treatment leads to a deterioration in the patient's health. In addition, without proper therapy, a person becomes a source of the spread of helminthiasis. The most commonly diagnosed helminthic invasions are ascariasis and enterobiasis. Cylindrical worms and fungal worms provide effective protection - with a sticky shell that keeps them firmly attached to the organs.
Do worms spread from person to person?
With the strictest adherence to all hygiene rules, it is impossible to protect yourself 100% from infection with helminths. However, it reduces the risk of parasites entering the body by about 60%. Do parasites spread from person to person? Contrary to popular belief, animals do not pose the greatest risk of infection with helminth samples. The route of infection of parasites through human contact is the most common, and certain types of worms only spread in this way.
The at-risk group includes preschoolers and children attending primary school. This is due to the still fragile immune system, the child's presence in everyday public places, the characteristics of the child's body, and the general habit of chewing nails. Parents need to know how helminthiasis spreads - this will prevent the baby from becoming infected.
How worms spread
There are several main ways in which parasites can spread. How does helminth infection develop? Worms spread in the following ways:
- In the air. In this case, one usually swallows eggs, fragments or larvae of worms, eats dirty vegetables / fruits (it is extremely important to wash the food thoroughly before consumption), drinks, swims in contaminated water, eats meat or fish. it was the carrier of the parasite.
- With household connections. The worms lay immature eggs, which, leaving the host, remain harmless to those around them for a few weeks. However, larvae can remain under the nails for a long time and spread by handshake, other personal contact, sharing hygiene items and bedding.
- Through saliva. Fungal worms and other types of parasites are able to move from one host to another in this way, but this is highly unlikely.
- Method of transmission of worms. It is possible to become infected with parasites if they are attacked by carriers of worm larvae such as insects (fleas, mosquitoes, mosquitoes). This danger is usually found in countries with tropical climates.
- The transfer route. If the mother is a carrier, they can cross the placenta to the baby.
With this method of helminthiasis infection, the larvae / eggs of the pathogen enter the human body through the mucosa or skin. The percutaneous pathway means that larvae waiting in the ground attack a person. At the same time, they enter through the skin and migrate to the intestines. Another example is a person infected with schistosomes while swimming in a pond. Usually, such dangerous parasites live in places with warm weather conditions.
Do worms spread by kissing?
There is virtually no chance of helminthiasis infection with saliva (during kissing). The worms do not live in the mouth, nor do their eggs remain in the initial part of the digestive system. Saliva must not contain parasitic larvae, and it also serves as a first barrier against the penetration of worms into the body, so they can only enter the human body through kissing if certain requirements are met:
- one partner had just bitten but did not swallow a product infected with helminths;
- the woman kissed the hand of a child who was just busy in the sandbox and immediately kissed her husband;
- just before the kiss, one of the partners touched the lips of an object with wormwood.
It is possible that parasites pass through the bed
The eggs of dumplings and other worms live outside the body of an animal or human for several months, while in everyday life they are found on any surface touched by the carrier. It can infect parasites on beds, dishes, doors, furniture, and so on. across. So if a family member becomes infected, the other members of the household will be infected with it in a short time. Everyone should have a test and start treatment in time to keep spreading helminthiasis between their loved ones and the environment.
Infection with mother and child worms
Doctors do not rule out the possibility of infecting the fetus with worms through the placental tissue. In addition, if a woman became infected with any of the pathogens of helminthiasis during pregnancy, there is a very high risk of the child becoming ill. It is unlikely that parasites will enter the baby with breast milk. Worms can enter the baby's body during childbirth when the baby moves through the birth canal. Maternal and child worm infections require complex treatment, while many medications are prohibited, so traditional medicine is often used.
Worm infection through sexual contact
There is a risk of getting a worm infection if we live in intimacy with a parasite carrier, especially if it is amoebiasis or giardiasis. Statistics show that infection through sexual contact is more common in people of non-traditional orientation. Giardia and amoeba usually live in the intestines and organs of the urogenital system, so protective measures such as contraceptives are unable to protect a healthy person from this disease.
Infection with worms occurs through vessels
A common variant of infection with parasites is the contact household. Often a person gets helminthiasis by eating foods containing larvae or worm eggs. However, the distribution scheme looks like this: after visiting the toilet, a child or adult does not wash their hands well or not at all, and then spreads the table and touches the cutlery, plates and other objects.
Due to poor hygiene, the eggs fall on the food and then directly into the digestive tract. Infection through pots can be aided if the flies sit first on the feces and then on the plates. When the first signs of helminthiasis appear, do not heal yourself, but see a doctor immediately to examine and determine the type of parasite. The specialist will help you choose the right therapy and prevent complications from occurring.
Measures to prevent infection with parasitic worms
There are many types of parasites that cannot be protected by vaccination or other preventative measures. It is also impossible to ignore the likelihood of helminthiasis, as it has become a massive problem over the years and often leads to the development of serious comorbidities. Despite the constant emergence of new, effective drugs against worms, parasites are adapting to toxic substances and continuing to spread from person to person.
In connection with the spread of the problem, it is advisable and mandatory to take measures to prevent the infection of parasitic worms:
- strictly follow the rules of hygiene;
- the meat and fish must be thoroughly processed before use;
- distribution of personal hygiene items to all family members (washcloth, toothbrush, towel, etc. );
- supports the immune system with vitamins;
- drink only clean water;
- elimination of bad habits;
- reduce the consumption of sweets (they really like parasites);
- the body is examined annually for helminthic invasion.